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Revolutionizing Root Canals: The Latest in 2024 Treatment Techniques

by Christine
Revolutionizing Root Canals: The Latest in 2024 Treatment Techniques

Root canal treatments have long been associated with fear and discomfort in the realm of dentistry. However, advancements in technology and techniques have transformed this once dreaded procedure into a more comfortable and efficient experience for patients. In 2024, the landscape of root canal treatment has evolved significantly, with innovative methods paving the way for enhanced outcomes and patient satisfaction. This article explores the latest trends and techniques revolutionizing root canals, highlighting the advancements that are reshaping the field.

The Evolution of Root Canal Treatment

Root canal treatment, also known as endodontic therapy, is a dental procedure performed to treat infection or damage within the pulp of a tooth. Traditionally, this process involved removing the infected or damaged tissue, cleaning the root canal space, and filling it to prevent further infection. While effective, traditional root canal procedures were often associated with discomfort and required multiple visits to the dentist.

However, the landscape of root canal treatment has undergone a significant transformation in recent years, driven by advancements in technology and techniques. Today, patients undergoing root canal treatment can expect a more streamlined and comfortable experience, thanks to innovations that have revolutionized the way these procedures are performed.

Key Innovations in Root Canal Treatment

One of the most significant advancements in root canal treatment is the adoption of rotary instruments and electronic apex locators. Rotary instruments, such as nickel-titanium files, allow dentists to more efficiently and effectively clean and shape the root canal space, reducing the time required for the procedure. Electronic apex locators aid in determining the precise length of the root canal, ensuring thorough cleaning and accurate filling.

Additionally, the integration of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology has transformed the diagnostic process for root canal treatment. CBCT imaging provides detailed 3D images of the tooth and surrounding structures, allowing dentists to identify pathology with greater precision and develop more targeted treatment plans. This improved imaging technology enhances the success rates of root canal procedures while minimizing the risk of complications.

Minimally Invasive Techniques

Minimally invasive techniques have also gained prominence in the field of root canal treatment, allowing for faster recovery times and reduced discomfort for patients. One such technique is the use of laser technology to disinfect the root canal system effectively. Lasers can target bacteria and debris within the root canal without damaging surrounding tissues, resulting in a more thorough and efficient cleaning process.

Another minimally invasive approach gaining traction is regenerative endodontics, which aims to restore the vitality of damaged teeth by promoting the growth of new tissue. This technique utilizes bioactive materials and growth factors to stimulate the regeneration of pulp tissue, potentially eliminating the need for traditional root canal therapy in some cases.

Patient-Centric Care

In addition to technological advancements, a shift towards patient-centric care has also influenced the way root canal treatments are delivered. Dentists are increasingly focused on providing personalized experiences that prioritize patient comfort and convenience. This includes offering sedation options to alleviate anxiety and pain during the procedure and utilizing digital communication platforms to keep patients informed and engaged throughout their treatment journey.

Furthermore, advancements in materials and techniques have led to the development of aesthetic restorative options for teeth following root canal therapy. Tooth-colored fillings and ceramic crowns blend seamlessly with natural teeth, providing both functional and cosmetic benefits for patients seeking root canal treatment.

Market Leaders and the Future of Root Canal Treatment

As the demand for advanced root canal treatments continues to grow, market leaders in the dental industry are driving innovation to meet the evolving needs of patients and practitioners alike. Companies specializing in endodontic equipment and materials are investing in research and development to bring cutting-edge technologies to market, with a focus on improving outcomes and enhancing the patient experience.

Looking ahead, the future of root canal treatment holds even greater promise, with ongoing advancements poised to further revolutionize the field. From the continued refinement of minimally invasive techniques to the integration of artificial intelligence and robotics, the possibilities for innovation in endodontics are endless.

In conclusion, the landscape of root canal treatment has been transformed by technological advancements and a commitment to patient-centric care. With innovative techniques and materials reshaping the way root canal procedures are performed, patients can now undergo treatment with greater comfort, efficiency, and confidence than ever before. As market leaders continue to push the boundaries of innovation, the future of root canal treatment looks brighter than ever.

The Impact of Climate Change on Oral Health

by Christine
The Impact of Climate Change on Oral Health
Woman Mouth And Broken Tongue With Cracks

Climate change is a pressing global issue with far-reaching consequences, affecting ecosystems, weather patterns, and human health. While the direct impacts of climate change on physical health are well-documented, the effects on oral health are often overlooked. This article explores the intricate relationship between climate change and oral health, shedding light on how environmental shifts can significantly influence dental well-being.

Water Scarcity and Oral Hygiene

One of the primary consequences of climate change is the alteration of precipitation patterns, leading to water scarcity in many regions. Limited access to clean water poses a serious threat to oral hygiene, as water is essential for maintaining proper dental health. Insufficient water supply hampers daily oral care practices such as brushing and flossing, increasing the risk of dental issues such as cavities, gum disease, and bad breath.

Rising Temperatures and Oral Health Challenges

Increasing global temperatures contribute to a rise in the prevalence of certain oral health issues. Higher temperatures can lead to dehydration, reducing saliva production. Saliva plays a crucial role in neutralizing acids, remineralizing teeth, and preventing bacterial growth in the mouth. Reduced saliva flow increases the likelihood of cavities, as well as other conditions like dry mouth and oral discomfort.

Extreme Weather Events and Dental Emergencies

The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, are on the rise due to climate change. These events can disrupt access to dental care, leading to a surge in dental emergencies. Displacement, damage to infrastructure, and compromised healthcare services during such events can result in delayed or inadequate treatment for oral health issues, exacerbating the overall impact on affected populations.

Rising Sea Levels Will Force Community Relocation

It seems a long way off that rising sea levels may affect dentists in seaside towns but how far ahead is it really? Many business owners located near to the ocean are already discussing the implications with safety management officers and also with their shareholders – companies that are planning ahead are already preferring factories and offices on higher ground.

Vector-Borne Diseases and Oral Health

Climate change influences the distribution and behavior of vectors like mosquitoes and ticks, expanding the geographical range of diseases such as Zika virus and Lyme disease. While these diseases primarily affect systemic health, they can also have oral manifestations. Understanding the link between vector-borne diseases and oral health is crucial for comprehensive healthcare strategies in regions susceptible to climate-induced changes in vector habitats.

Impact of Air Pollution on Oral Health

Climate change is closely tied to increased air pollution, which has detrimental effects on both general and oral health. Particulate matter and pollutants in the air can contribute to respiratory issues and aggravate existing oral health conditions. Individuals with conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may experience worsened oral health outcomes in polluted environments.

Food Security and Nutritional Impact on Oral Health
Changes in climate patterns affect agricultural productivity, leading to shifts in food availability and nutritional content. Poor nutrition can compromise oral health, as essential vitamins and minerals are necessary for maintaining healthy teeth and gums. Limited access to a diverse and nutritious diet can contribute to the development of oral health issues, including tooth decay and gum disease.

Community Vulnerability and Oral Health Disparities

Climate change exacerbates existing social and economic disparities, leaving vulnerable communities at a higher risk of oral health issues. Limited access to resources, healthcare facilities, and education about oral hygiene can create a cycle of poor dental health within marginalised populations. Addressing climate change and its associated impacts is crucial for promoting health equity and reducing oral health disparities. It makes sense that sustainable or eco-friendly dentistry should play its part in helping stem environmental degradation now and in the next century.

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

To mitigate the impact of climate change on oral health, a multifaceted approach is necessary. Implementing water conservation measures, improving access to clean water, and developing sustainable oral hygiene practices are essential steps. Additionally, adapting healthcare systems to withstand the challenges posed by extreme weather events and addressing the social determinants of health can contribute to a more resilient oral health infrastructure.

Scientists are Worried, Dentists are Worried

As climate change continues to reshape our planet, the implications for human health, including oral health, cannot be ignored. Understanding the intricate connections between environmental shifts and dental well-being is crucial for developing effective public health strategies. By addressing the challenges posed by climate change, we can work towards ensuring that everyone has access to adequate resources and healthcare services to maintain optimal oral health in a changing world.

Australian Outback vs. Siberian Wilderness: Which Is Tougher To Tour?

by Christine
Australian Outback vs. Siberian Wilderness: Which Is Tougher To Tour?
A 4WD car negotiating a rural track in the outback near Mt Surprise, Queensland, Australia

It seems such a macho question doesn’t it? Like how tough does your toughness have to be to tough it out in the toughest of tough environments; and is that environment really the toughest of all?

Tough question.

Tough’s tough to define. It can be strength, resilience, inflexibility, coarseness. It can be arduous and unpalatable and brutal. There’s the difference in perception between a tough man and a tough woman. Digging a hole is tough. Grieving is tough. Tough is physical, spiritual, emotional. You can have all that covered, none of it at all, or one or two of three. Toughness is not relative to size, age or capacity. Toughness is sometimes what others see that we don’t feel within ourself. The elderly can be frail and tough; a baby incomplete, unborn and yet determined.

It’s elusive, this idea of toughness. Like hammering down a feather. Or handling something so hardened and thorny it’s too brittle and fragile to grasp.

The 13 million square kilometres of Siberia has the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world. Lake Baikal. It’s also the deepest at 1642 metres.


As we know, Australia is the driest continent on earth. Essentially seventy percent of it is just earth. The Australian outback extends an inhospitable hand to 5.6 million square kilometres.


Do we tour the rawness of the Aussie outback or the barbarous monotony of Siberia to unearth toughness or encounter enlightenment? Is it human conquering beauty and beast or soul finding space and time?

Australia and Siberia are the two largest, most mineral wealthy land masses on the planet. The first has 40 million years of supporting and opposing human life; the other 125 thousand years. Still no short straw there, despite a century of hard-pushing to see how long until we place the final one on our much disrespected natural world. As an aside, Australia has 350 operating mines and Siberia has 220. Prior to its rapidly changing landscape over the last two decades of melting permafrost at an unprecedented rate, there were 96.

The oil and gas industry is moving in.

A few more straws before our alarmingly short arrival at the last one, and commercial witness that Siberia isn’t as tough as it once was.

The Siberian tundra also entices hardy adventurers for off-the-beaten-track experiences of a lifetime. Sitting just below the Arctic ice cap, the coastal tundra along the Laptev Sea stretches across northeastern Russia. You might be lucky enough, or unlucky enough to come across a Siberian tiger. Or an insomniac bear – temperatures have been hovering around 4°C instead of the usual minus 2.3 and it’s stopped bears hibernating. You can hear the poor things moaning to each other about how it’s just too hot to sleep.

Tough when you can’t take your bearskin off.

So Siberia’s loosing its cool and so is Australia. It hotted up so well in the summer of 2019/20, 5.3 million hectares burned over 79 days and took the lives of three billion animals with it.

That’s more than tough. That’s savage tragedy.

You want tough? Forget touring the Siberian wilderness. Imagine arriving straight from the womb and surviving a temperature scopes of between minus 70°C and 35°C for the last 78 years. Living nowhere else, and for 35 of them knowing noone who wasn’t brother, sister or parent.

Now that is tough.

A Siberian family lives frugally off completely inhospitable land for almost eight decades and First Nation People thrived on it for 40000 millennia. Such is the dualism of toughness.

Tough to define tough; tough to decide the toughest terrain, rough to decide which tour.

Both Australia and Siberia are vast, remote, isolated and complex lands where environment is not your friend. And nor is technology.

Take a minute and imagine not being able to Google your way out of something.

Something very important.

The Australian outback has desert and semi-dry tropics, with extreme temperatures that can be between minus 7.5 and 95°C. It has both venomous, and man-eating pursuit reptiles, dingoes, deadly spiders and scorpions.

If you break down in the heat you’re dead meat. There is nowhere to hide, no shade no shelter.

Tourists need to drink 15 litres of water a day and without proper hydration can perish within hours. Once your body reaches 40°C you have 30 minutes to cool down to avoid vital organ malfunction and a lead-up to death.

The outback claims about 40 lives a year. Vast desert dunes soften, bogging and breaking vehicles; people get lost, vehicle accidents happen – often by unavoidably hitting wildlife.

There is strong digital marketing of the outback to city-dwelling Australians, and internationally. Always making it seem that travelling in the Australian outback is fundamentally a blokey pursuit, with a hot girlfriend sometimes involved. All the 4WD, camping and outback travel shows are aimed at men and presented by men. They all have high-end 4WDs and talk a lot about lifts, tyres, recovery gear, and all that shit. And really – that’s what it is, a lot of talk ‘n shit. The safest 4WD tours travel in tag along groups. In the outback it won’t always be your gear that saves you and ingenuity always will. There is no reason for a flat tyre in the outback when you’re surrounded by spinifex.

Siberia is also a true wilderness. 18000sq kilometres of canyons, and strangely flat-topped mountains. Lakes and rivers, and thousands and thousands of tundra kilometres, unmapped.

Who knows which is the toughest of two places, 10000 kilometres apart, to tour?

Is experiencing unbelievably hot temperatures more rugged than toughing out extreme cold? Is it tougher to risk dying of thirst, or dicing with falling through ice? Which colours of the spectrum, which experiences of sound and fragrance drive you to override the possibility of not surviving?

The toughness comes not with where you go, but that you go.

For some people a tough tour is leaving their home every day. For some it’s taking a trip with family. Tough stuff exists for no other reason than for us to take the chance to learn something. About the world, about a place, and always about ourselves.

That is the toughest tour of all. Being in our personal Siberia. Crossing our personal desert.

Electricity Supply in Remote Areas: How To Maximise The Wattage

by Christine
Electricity Supply in Remote Areas: How To Maximise The Wattage
electrician at work, home renovation, electrical installation, Hand of an electrician

We live in a time of uncertain power supplies, here in Australia. This is due to the nation’s stubborn resistance to change and vested interests influencing conservative governments. Coal powered energy is outdated, and we should be embracing renewable energy sources, but there are still despicable politicians dancing to the tune of the coal mining industry. They run an outdated scare campaign about the risk of renewables and lazy thinking laps it up in regional areas. Electricity supply in remote areas: How to maximise the wattage remains a pertinent question because of this backward thinking in the bush.

Power Blackouts Have Been Prevalent in Regional Areas

Power blackouts have been prevalent in recent years due to the privatisation of power companies and their bad behaviour in relation to the grid. The politicians promised that privatisation would make energy bills cheaper, but the private sector did not deliver, focusing on their own profits instead. It has been a familiar story all over the globe, as the greed of the corporate sector eclipses any sort of social responsibility. However, you do not want your smoke alarm to be off, ever because house fires do not wait for anyone or anything. Electricity supply in remote areas: How to maximise the wattage is a case by case affair.

Families Rely on Steady Power in the Home

They say that a renovated bathroom with fancy lighting can use too much power but it all depends upon the electrical circuit board and the home’s set up. A good electrician can sort out most problems you may have at home or at your business premises. In this high-tech age, the last thing you want is dodgy power in the home. Families rely on steady power and plenty of plugs in every room in the house. Heaven forbid if your kids cannot connect to the internet or charge their devices in the 21C. You may well find yourself as a parent facing intervention from social services for being a neglectful carer in the home.

It reminds me of the time I took the kids on a holiday to a seaside village and we booked very basic accommodation. I will never live down the incessant complaints I received from my children not being able to access the power needed to run their numerous devices. We live in a time of technological innovation, which is dependent upon reliable and abundant power supplies. Australia needs to get its act together and put down dinosaurs like Tony Abbott and his ilk for ever more.



Regional Dentists & Infectious Diseases

by Christine
Regional Dentists & Infectious Diseases

The world has seen some pretty ugly days. Pandemics just happen to be on top of that list. Today, we are all battling Coronavirus as well as other viruses like HIV&AIDS. And so the majority of medical practitioners have had to put their personal lives aside to take care of people. A lot has changed, and a lot is yet to change still. But has this interfered in ways how doctors, particularly dentists, go about their businesses? Is there really a distinct difference between how coronavirus and AIDs cases are handled?

Well, the answer is an astounding yes.

Below is a detailed comparison as to how the two cases have changed in an emergency dentist crisis. So read on to find out how.
But before we get into that, let’s get this small bit out of the way:

Both diseases are deadly, no doubt about it. AIDs is a lifetime disease, while Coronavirus is a more short-term illness that can knock you off your feet in a matter of days. Today you might be up and healthy, tomorrow you have a mild cold that could escalate to you being admitted to the ICU. With that said, Coronavirus calls for a more careful approach as it is also transmitted through contact of a sick person or a surface they have touched. While AIDs could take years to make the switch from HIV.

Ask These Questions To Your Orthodontist Before Starting Any Dental Treatment

1.Preparation and use of equipment.

When dentists get aware of this, they take more care of the sterilization of the kits they use. The Coronavirus is a respiratory pathogen, while HIV is an immuno-attacking one. Both can be transmitted through body fluids, including saliva, which is inevitable to get into contact with in a dental session. To block both viruses from moving from one party to another, the equipment used MUST be cleaned and sterilised after each session. Moreso, the dentist, and their assistant being careful not to hold anything after a procedure without them being sterilised. As usual, syringes are used once per patient and disposed of while the reusable dental tools must be disinfected thoroughly. For this, the standard procedure is upheld.

2.Staff uniform
When you are dealing with an AIDs patient, the medical staff will be in the standard uniform as the virus cannot be airborne on any occasion. But when handling a known Coronavirus case, they must be in the full armour of protective gear- masks, gloves, suits, and any other piece of kit. But since you cannot know who is infected with Coronavirus, both parties should be at least wearing a face mask to protect themselves.

3.Personal responsibility
Lastly, both the patient and the medical officers have a significant role to play in both cases-AIDs and Coronavirus. Here, especially in a dental emergency the patient has to answer truthfully to any question asked by the dentist. Concerning AIDs, they must admit having the disease and in Coronavirus, at least telling of their travel history, if any. On Coronavirus, both parties should protect the other by having masks on, hand sanitisers, sneezing in the elbow, among others.

In as much as social distancing is a bit of a myth during a dental session, masks, gloves, and a protective suit can keep the coronavirus pathogens at bay.
To conclude, it is safe to say that both need caution. So much so, make sure you protect yourself so that you can protect others.

South African Agriculture

by Christine
South African Agriculture

South African agriculture mainly consists of grains, corn and sugarcane. They are also known producers of table grapes, wine and citrus. Their wine is slowly being recognised as exporters of wine along with sugar, nuts, apples and pears. Although agriculture is not really their strongest industry. They are mostly self-sufficient when it comes to food. But unlike most countries, South Africa manages to be a top exporter of agricultural products. They do not depend on importing what they need, at least not for food. 
Their primary crop is Maize, their most important produce. It is a staple food along with other food products like biltong, droewors and other South African goodies, they are slowly widening their agricultural reach. Agriculture is an integral sector in South Africa. It opens up opportunities for their rural areas and brings in much needed much needed income. 


South Africa’s largest agricultural sector, though, is livestock farming. Cattle ranching mostly. This is due to the lack of rain, among others that is why more farms are not yielding their usual number of crops and switching to livestock. Most profitable crops would be macadamia nuts followed by fruit trees and berries. Oyster mushrooms and lavender farming can be quite a fragrant choice. Although drought and unwise water use can alter this situation. South African agriculture can take a turn for the worse if this continues.
It’s a good thing that agriculture is not even among the top three industries of South Africa. In fact, South Africa’s best industry with a steady, dependable growth is in the Communications and Information Technology. This is closely followed by manufacturing, tourism and mining and somewhere there would be agriculture. South Africa is the second largest economy in Africa next to Nigeria with its tourism industry placing second in the fastest growing worldwide. Diamond mining is still one South Africa is well-known for. But not just diamonds but also gold, minerals and platinum. This country’s economy although it can slow down a little will not totally halt even with their agriculture shifting from one product to the other. They just need an in depth study of which crops to rotate and they can bounce back.

The Power Of Children’s Health And Healing

by Christine

The power of children’s health and healing is very significant. It is never too early to teach children about health. Children’s health and teaching children about the power of health and healing that is in their hands is the beginning of their journey to wellness. As children they have limited knowledge of what is good or bad for their health. They naturally gravitate towards sweets and whatever gets advertised on the television. 

It is up to the parents and their equivalent, teachers and carers, to teach the health benefits to their children. Good food, proper hygiene and exercise are the basics for a healthy body. They are also the ones that teach appreciation for what is healthy for their little minds.. But sometimes the day is not quite so long to be able to do all that is required to make sure they have healthy meals, healthy environment.

Keeping the children healthy is of prime importance. They are the future and the way you keep them healthy and occupied. Let them help with meal choices and preparation. Start with breakfast. Whenever possible let them plan one meal a week. Teach them good food choices. Whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Cultivating a garden is a good way to introduce them to how to grow their own food. There is also benefits when gardening with children. The fresh air alone and the bonding with them is worth all the trouble. Start them with snap peas, tomatoes and chili, some basil, sunflowers and mint. These are easy plants to grow and will basically take care of themselves. 

Additionally, once they know that they planted and harvested these themselves, they would be more inclined to eat their fruits and vegetables. Encourage them to drink plenty of water and milk. Screen time should be regulated and absolutely no gadgets for ages 2 and below. Now the most fun and necessary requirement for a healthy child is activity. Be active! Children’s health depends on it. Develop hobbies, be active on sports, join Sydney excursions and incursions, team building activities, workshops and exercise that engage big and small muscle groups. 


A child’s future wellness starts with copying and doing what their guardians tell them to. This way we can guide the child in the proper path towards a healthier life.

Food Crops Link the World

by Christine
Food Crops Link the World

A strong case can be made for the argument that it is trade, which has linked the disparate nation states of the world together. It was the desire by the ancients to buy and sell across oceans and seas, with other communities from different ethnic origins, which brought us together. Food crops, especially, link the world, as they are our essential requirements for survival. In the 21C, in places like Asia, development is, often, in conflict with more traditional subsistence economic activities like agriculture.

Development Conflicts in the Third World

Wealthy developers want to establish high grossing activities like mining on land, which has traditionally been employed for farming and growing food crops. The World Bank and IMF, organisations set up to bring the developing world greater prosperity, sometimes find themselves on the opposite side to the wants of the traditional holders of the land. Trickle down neoliberal economics upholds that wealth creation for the rich and overseas corporations will eventually benefit the local inhabitants, despite displacing them and taking away their livelihoods in the short to medium term. They promise things will get better after getting much worse first. Economic development must ride roughshod over traditional customs and culture before it delivers greater economic wealth for the populace.

Economic Development Must Recognise the Value of Traditional Lifestyles

Growing food for the culinary requirements of a community and a nation remain important aspects of statehood in both the developing and developed worlds. Cows and sheep are livestock herds which provide multiple benefits to local populations from both their hides and flesh. Economic development must recognise the value of traditional lifestyles centred around agrarian activities in these communities. It cannot dismantle these cultural building blocks indiscriminately and indifferently. Indigenous people have been farming and growing food crops in this manner for millennia.

We Risk Becoming Soulless Husks

Food crops link the world and they must be respected for this very reason. Technology in the west may be rapidly replacing much of what we built our customs upon in the past, but we risk becoming soulless husks if we lose our talismans. The developing world has much to teach us about the essential nature of humanity. Food brings people together to share and to break bread, wherever you are on the planet. Food farming is an integral industry and we risk much if we lose sight of this as a society.

Horses Of The Caucasus

by Christine

The Caucasus region and mountain system is the dividing line between Europe and Asia. The northern part of the Great Caucasus in Europe is called Ciscaucasia. And the southern part in Asia is Transcaucasia. The whole Caucasus region with an area of 440,000 square km. is predominantly mountainous. The origin of the domestication of the horses can be traced to the grassland of this Eurasian Steppe. This is the reason why the horses of the Caucasus are the world’s best mountain breed. Early Caucasians use horses for agriculture, transportation and warfare. They believe the horse is a symbol of honour success and generosity.  There are three horses native to the Caucasus region: Karabakh, Kabarda, and the Karachai. The culture of horse breeding takes roots in the difficult mountain terrain of this region.

The Karabakh also known as Karabakhskaya in Russian is the pride of the Caucasus. Experts say that this horse found on the southern part of the region is one of the oldest breeds in Asia. Karabakh is a mountain steppe riding and racing horse. Karabakh horses are performance-tested on the racecourse. Horses with this bloodline are favourite in bookmaker bets.  Karabakh horses are brave, they were involved on the frontlines of the battles. During World War 1 Caucasian warriors were fighting on these horses. These horses are not afraid of bullets and would run towards artillery redoubts.

Karabakh is the national animal of Azerbaijan and the official symbol of Agdam and Shaki region. The breed is known for its good temper, endurance and speed. The distinctive feature of this horse is its golden colour. They are mainly golden-redheaded and bay horses. There were almost no blacks or grays among them. The Karabakh influenced the development of the Russian Don horse. The golden colour of the Don horses is attributed to this breed.

The Kabarda or Kabardin horse is native to the Northern Caucasus. The early mountain tribesmen of the region breed the native Kabardin. This horse is the product of natural selection for centuries for its ability to survive harsh conditions. The Kabarda is the world’s best mountain horse. The supremacy of Kabarda is more apparent on higher altitude. This “extreme breed of horse” can live under extreme weather condition. It has developed the characteristics suited for difficult mountain terrain and harsh climate. This warm-blooded equine combines the agility of the hot-blooded horse with the milder temperament of cold-blooded breeds.

There are three main subtypes of Kabarda:
Basic type is the typical mountain horse for riding. This is predominantly rangy but well-muscled.
Massive type is the bigger horse with more robust bone structure which is similar to a typical carriage horse.
Oriental type is smaller with more Arabian influence. It has a smaller head, clean legs, thinner skin and hotter temperament.

Kabarda is generally healthy with no known breed-specific health issues.  They are also multi-talented, the can perform various task well. They can do endurance riding, general riding and agricultural work. Crossing a Kabarda with an Anglo-Arabian will give you Anglo-Kabardas. This breed perfectly combines the advantages of the two breeds. Anglo-Kabarda is noted for their high speed, vigour and strong constitution.

The Karachai horse also called Karatschaever, Karatschaewsker & Karachaier is a breed that comes from the breeds of the northern Caucasus. This breed was developed at the start of this last millennium. The Karachai comes from the combination of southern, steppe and eastern horses that is very similar to the Kabarda breed. It differed from Kabarda in having a more elongated and massive body with less expression of saddle type. It has an elegant head with curved ears, and a wavy mane and tail. The prevailing colours of Karachai are black and dark brown. The Karachai horses are typically used for riding, equestrian gaming, transportation and tourism. The first studbook for this breed was created in 1935.


Looking After the Labourers on the Land

by Christine
Looking After the Labourers on the Land

Just recently, there were reports that Punjabi farmers have found greener pastures in Georgia, a relatively small country in the Caucasus region. Due to cheaper farm leases, ideal climate for crops and rich soil, farm labourers in India have crossed the region looking for new farms to tend and crops to grow.

For many years, parts of Caucasus are embroiled in conflicts and violence. Despite the frictions in the region, the agricultural industry somehow thrived in Caucasus. In fact, one of the world’s first farmers came from the ancient inhabitants in communities that settled in the area. This does not come as a surprise since more than half of the total land mass in the Caucasus ecoregion are being used in agriculture. Among the major crops harvested in the area are fodder, tea and tobacco.

Farm workers in the region are lauded for being hardworking and resilient. But despite their diligence, their needs are often overlooked. One of which is their sexual needs. Good thing that there are brothels in the Caucasus that can bring about the farmers’ sexual desires.

Health services for farm workers in the region also seemed to be inadequate. As the number of young farm workers in the region increases, the need for proper health care also shoots up. Sadly, not everyone can afford the heath care they desperately yearn for. Farming, in general, constitutes mostly of physical labour that is associated with extreme physical and health risks. In a world where the significance of adept workers with benefits is recognised, why are farmers not given the same merits and assistance?

Support to local farmers is also limited. Due to climate change, productivity in the Caucasus is low compared with other agricultural regions in the world. What the farmers need are programs and assistance from their government as well as support from international research communities that are focused on improving agricultural yield. Plants that can grow even on winter and crops that are tolerant to salinisation and pests will also help in boosting the productive capacity of agricultural systems in the region. The growth potential of agricultural lands in the Caucasus will only go to waste if these needs will not be met.